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Related post: 4-13 PHS 60*0 (R»v 1/*4) 0*>0 »l • Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology 1990 Annual Report Table of Contents Z01-AI Project Number Page Summary 00529-03 00485-04 00486-04 00581-01 Antigen Processing and Presentation The Biochemical Basis of T Cell Activation and Inactivation T Cell Differentiation T Cell Memory and Tolerance 5-1 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 PHS-NIH Summary Statement Office of the Chief Laboratory Generic Brand Of Yasmin of Cellular and Molecular Immunology October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990 Introduction The Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology was created in November, 1986. Its major task is to perform research on thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes. Its objective is to understand how these critical cells of the immune system differentiate and function. The approach is to define problems in whole animal systems, set up in vitro Buy Yasmin Online Uk analogs in tissue culture, and determine the molecular basis for the phenomena. The Laboratory employs techniques from the disciplines Yasmin 21 Tablets of cellular immunology, molecular biology, and protein biochemistry. During its Yasmin Generic Price fourth year, the Laboratory has pursued four major areas of research: 1) antigen presentation by resting B cells, 2) the biochemical basis of T cell Yasmin Generic Brand inactivation, 3) the intrathymic events in T cell differentiation, and 4) a new in vitro assay for cytotoxic T cells. Antigen Processing and Presentation The antigen-presenting cell controls the outcome of T Yasmin Ed Tablets cell antigen-receptor occupancy by its ability to delivery Buying Yasmin Online a costimulatory signal. In the presence of costimulation, the T cell makes interleukin 2 (IL-2) and divides. In the absence of this second signal, the T cell makes only a partial response and is induced into a nonresponsive state known as clonal anergy. Thus, different cells Yasmin Generic Name types bearing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and antigen will have differential effects on the immune response, depending on their ability to delivery Zarah Generic For Yasmin the costimulatory signal. During the past year, we have investigated the ability of small, low density ("resting") B cells to present antigen to T cells in vivo and Buy Generic Yasmin in vitro. In vitro, these cells stimulate a proliferative response from T cell clones, although this capacity is abolished by pre-irradiating the B cells with 3000R. This observation suggested that the B cells express Yasmin 3 Mg costimulatory activity. In contrast, the same population, when injected in vivo, induced partial or complete tolerance in two systems, the cytotoxic response to the male antigen H-Y and the mixed lymphocyte response in full MHC incompatible stimulation. These observations suggested that resting B cells do not express costimulatory activity. This paradox was resolved when it was discovered that overnight incubation of resting B cells in tissue culture made them radioresistant for antigen presentation. This suggested that resting B cells lack costimulatory activity, but Ocella Generic For Yasmin that it is induced during in vitro culture. This induction process appears to be sensitive to 3000R irradiation. (E. Fuchs, H. Hashimoto, A. Bendelac, C. Prussin, and R. H. Schwartz, LCMI, NIAID) 5-1 The Biochemical Basis of T Cell Activation and Tnactivation Studies of T cell activation of normal murine T cell clones of the T H 1 type have shown that two signals Buy Yasmin Uk are required to stimulate the Generic Form Of Yasmin cells to make IL-2 and divide. One signal is given through the antigen-specific receptor that is uniquely expressed on each clone. The other signal is called costimulation and is delivered through a different receptor that has not yet been characterized. Signal 1 in the absence of signal 2 induces a Generic Version Of Yasmin state of hyporesponsiveness in the T cell clone known as clonal anergy. Generic Brand For Yasmin In this state, the cell fails to make significant amounts of IL-2 when stimulated with both signals 1 and 2. During the past year, the reasons for this failure to make IL-2 were examined at the molecular level. Although signaling through the antigen receptor was found to be normal, as assessed by increases in intracellular calcium and protein kinase C activation, steady-state levels of IL-2 mRNA were decreased 20- to 50-fold. Other lymphokines were also affected, but not as profoundly. Interleukin 3 production in response to stimulation was down 8-fold, and y-interferon and tumor necrosis factor production were down 3-fold. In an attempt to extend our observations on T H 1 clones to other T cell subpopulations, we tried to induce clonal anergy in T Generic Yasmin Zarah H 2, T H 0, and freshly isolated T lymphocytes from immunized mice. Three bona fide T H 2 clones could not be anergized with any of three techniques used Yasmin Buy Online to anergize T H 1 clones. In contrast, two T H clones could be anergized. The common theme appears to be whether the T cell clone depends on IL-2 for its autocrine growth. T H 1 and T H clones, which utilize IL-2, can be anergized, whereas T H 2 cells, which utilize different growth factors, cannot. Finally, freshly isolated T cells behaved in an anomalous manner. These cells could be anergized when exposed to the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, but not when stimulated with antigen on chemically-fixed presenting Yasmin 28 Generic cells. The reason(s) for this last paradoxical set of results is still under investigation. (D. Mueller, B. Beverly, S. Stringfellow, K. Generic Name For Yasmin Brorson, D. Cassell, K. Inamori, and R. H. Schwartz, LCMI, NIAID; S. Kang and M. Lenardo, LI, NIAID) T Cell Differentiation This project is aimed at defining and characterizing the series of developmental events involved in the generation of mature, immunocompetent T cells and the selective events that determine the antigen-recognition repertoire of these cells. These studies primarily utilize the thymus, the major site of T cell differentiation in the animal. In the
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